Construction of Islam and the Muslims – Evidence from Print Media

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Construction of Islam and the Muslims, The US media capabilities a poor rhetoric towards the Muslims via way of means of posing them as a danger to the West. This article/look at goals to discover how america A media constructs the photo of Islam and the Muslims for the viewers. It additionally goals to investigate the perspective of america A writers approximately Islam and the Muslims. The paper analyzes 2,523 articles, descriptive of Islam and the Muslims and published in the US press from January to March 2017.

It explores and describes the extent to which the poor phrases and metaphors are used with inside the main articles Construction of Islam and the Muslims, which subsequently constructs a poor photo of the Muslims and Islam a number of the US citizenry. This poor portrayal via way of means of america A media factors to the emergence and evolution of the patterns of representation of Islam, which are constitutive of an existential danger photo.

The look at recommends the evaluation of all media actors who speak / write (Construction of Islam and the Muslims)approximately Islam and the Muslims at a broader stage to apprehend the hassle in its genuine perspective/essence with an purpose to discover its prognostics.

Introduction of Construction of Islam and the Muslims

Terrorism and Islam are topics of huge concernfor many, if not maximum, Americans and Europeans today;and honestly for maximum with inside the media. Most of it commenced following 9/11 tragedy, and due to the fact then there was a endured trumpet approximately Islamic terrorism with inside the news media. Radical corporations along with ISIS (Construction of Islam and the Muslims), al-Qaeda and others are dominating the news hole with inside the media and have an increasing number of emerge as the globalized and public face of Islam.

Something has long gone omitted that famous secular minds want to understand that there are over 1.6 billion souls that adhere to the Islamic religion with inside the global these days and there are a small fraction that have emerge as radicalized or made so, but non violent and religious mainstream fans of Islam were lumped-in with them.

If the photograph of the Muslims is constructed as backward, untrustworthy, dangerous, and terrorist, it is for the ones mainstream Muslims too who are an increasing number of constructed, branded, imagined and dehumanized. Assuming the Muslims in entirety and, subsequently, posing them as chargeable for terrorism creates a global of terror and lack of confidence in which discriminating towards and attacking the Muslim minorities will become suitable and regular in the West.

Such has been the case of the Muslims in the US in post-9/11 scenario. They were victimized in thousands of hate crimes, verbal abuse and violent assaults due to their race/ethnicity or religious identity. Today eighteen years have handed however the Muslim girls in hijab (Construction of Islam and the Muslims) continue to experience discrimination Construction of Islam and the Muslims, and protestations erupt when Muslims try to construct locations of worship and a few politicians have visible pronounced to name for a ban on Muslim immigrants.

One common explanation forth is growing antipathy is the perceived affiliation among the Muslims and terrorism and political violence, and mass media appear to be solidifying this affiliation in Western public consciousness. However, current studies have pointed out that the perception of the Muslims as a political and/or cultural risk generates the emotions of lack of confidence the various Westerners that generalizes the worry of Islam and Muslims Construction of Islam and the Muslims, what we name it these days ‘Islamophobia.’The present work is targeted on the study of the contemporary phenomenon of Islamophobia, which is somehow the product of how the Muslims and Islam are constructed in media.

Since Islamophobia is predominantly a mediated construct, therefore, the study seeks to map the development of this phenomenon through the media content. Theoretically and methodologically, this phenomenon should be studied even as taking into consideration all complicated variables at play which consist of the construction of terrible images of the Muslims and Islam.

The position of media practitioners(in particular along with the writers of opinion portions and editorials)in image construction is really well worth analyzing due to the control on language which they hold and media being the effective machinery of representations give them autonomy to write towards Islam and the Muslims.

They construct a particular photograph of Islam and the Muslims by employing different writing strategies and phrases to generate certain feelings and emotions.

Literature Review of Construction of Islam and the Muslims

Relevant literature factors out that the Muslims had been perceived as one of the finest threats to the Western imperial aims and its expansionist designs for lots centuries. This state,all the way back to the middle ages,endured unabatedly tillthe twenty-first centurywith apparentlyno endto it. For example, European powers clashed with Ottoman Empire in the sixteenth century and they had been expanding hithertointhe Muslim majority countries in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

They declared conflict in opposition to the Muslims and on the alternative hand the United States additionally have become a prime imperial strength focusing its financial and political manipulate over diverse Middle Eastern countries.So there has been a long history of the Western empires building the Muslims as threatening “Others” in lots of ways. However, the tale of production of Islam in media as an item of worry and lack of confidence starts offevolved with the 1979 revolution in Iran.

Scholars have pointedout that the age-vintage Islamic risk, which laiddormant following the World War-II, once more emerged with overthrow of a strategically essential best friend of the West-Reza Pahlevi of Iran.10Very quickly, the Cold War script that turned into divided among communism and democracy turned into revised to deal with a brand new international strugglefare offering the Muslim “Other”11andthe global have become divided among the idea of Islam and the West.

One of the contemporary media researchers argues that the Iranian Revolution furnished the Western media the reasons for developing the image of Islam as a brand new enemybased on traditionally adversarial and polarized relationships among the Islamic global and the West.

Another renowned pupil describes this revolution because the preliminary signifier of the revival of Islam and its alleged threats to the West. A take a look at has revealed that the revolution brought about a dramatic surge in the polemical discourse whereby media writers increasingly demonized Islam and invoked historical sources (Construction of Islam and the Muslims)for the Christians’worry. The Western journalists often depicted exaggerated stereotypes and caricatures of Islam, imparting it each as a adversarial and baneful faith.

They framed the revolution as “go back to an intense orthodoxy in Islam that’s anti-Western in nature”, recalling that “as currently as the start of the 20 th century the Mohammedan global turned into visible as an alien pressure which Christendom had each cause to worry.”

Another take a look at additionally factors to media’s portrayals of the revolution in Iran because the go back of Islam.What in the long run emerged from this discourse turned into an photograph of Islam as a capacity political pressure threatening the Western global. Some researchers in pointed that the insurance of Islam around Eighties and Nineties closely relied on the (Construction of Islam and the Muslims)‘conflict of civilization’as a framework of understanding, one which the US media had been all too ready to embrace after the fall of Communism.

A study has set up the truth that the “media, the government, the geo-political strategists, and … the academic experts on Islam (had been) all in concert: Islam is a risk to the Western civilization (Construction of Islam and the Muslims).”Another evaluation has revealed that the US media during and after Iranian hostage crisis (1979-1081) built the Muslim and Islam as negative “Other”, as part of Western outlook called‘Orientalism.’

It mentioned that thiswas a massive occasion in each reinforcing the manifestations of historical ideological Orientalist discourses via way of means of which Islam got here to be acknowledged to many Westerners and the factor from which media’ negativities closer to Muslims amplified considerably.

Relevant research indicates that the upward push of developing tide of militant piety during the Eighties and Nineties which has swept via massive part of Middle East turned into on the centre of interest of media and political actors. The researchers have illuminated the truth that insurance of Islamic organizations and movements, whether or not mild or militants Construction of Islam and the Muslims, regularly worried conflation of the faith of Islam with militancy in terms of violence-associated activities of the militant organizations.

It revealed that Islamic militancy turned into represented with exclusive labels which include Islamic terror, extremism, fundamentalism, Islamic militancy, and political Islam, to call a few. Likewise, Islamic terrorists, extremists Construction of Islam and the Muslims, fans had been the frames that were used for the ones worried in violence or deviant activities.

Islamic risk turned into generalized with the terrorism, violence and extremist pronouncements of the Muslim militant organizations that had been projected now no longer best onto the militants or the Islamists however onto the Muslims in general. Islamists despite the fact that constitute a small minority of the Muslims, Construction of Islam and the Muslims yetthe media generalized their violence as a part of alleged struggle fare among Islam and the Western liberalism and the so-called ‘political risk’that had endured to have utility in the contemporary media discourses about Islamophobia –(Construction of Islam and the Muslims) Islamists fundamentalism and identity of Islam as a faith related to violence and terrorism.

The Western journalist soften projected an photograph of Islam as a foreign political ideology that aims at gaining political, in place of spiritual, advantages. In Europe, Khomeini’s fatwa in opposition to Salman Rushdie in addition to protests in opposition to his ee-e book The Satanic Verses by the Muslims became the main tales of the 1989s. A take a look at studying media coverage across the identical duration famous that Western government sand the media writers all had been shocked and enraged about what they saw as fundamentalist intolerance and international terrorism.

It was revealed that during this ethnic struggle fare, the Western populace and intellectuals additionally took part in the contemporary variant of beyond schism among Christianity and Islam, in which general accusations of intolerance and shortage of Islam’s appreciate for different cultural and spiritual values had been exchanged. The take a look at alsopoints to the right wing slogan,“They [Construction of Islam and the Muslims] need to adapt themselves to ‘our’[Western] norms and values”, which have become a widely shared opinion among liberals as well.

This struggle fare and its insurance performed an essential function in legitimization of present biases and prejudices closer to Islam and the Arabs in general and in opposition to the Muslim minorities in particular. (Construction of Islam and the Muslims)Media contents frequently emphasized social and cultural superiority of the white and western lifestyle and values over the Muslims.

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Construction of Islam and the Muslims
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